Papers on this page were presented during the 22nd EG-ICE workshop held in the time between 13th and 16th July 2015.

Note that only the offline proceedings contain links to the actual papers

Paper ID: 1
Alcinia Z. Sampaio
Dep. Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
Diogo Simoes
Dep. Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
Keywords: Building Information Model (BIM), BIM software, interoperability, maintenance
BIM Technology in the Maintenance of Building Components
The aim of the proposed work was to analyse the benefits provided by Building Information Models (BIM) as a methodology to support buildings maintenance. During an inspection activity for maintenance purposes, the implemented application, containing a rigorous database, allows the user to identify each anomaly present in building components, directly onto the BIM model, automatically associating them with probable causes, repair methods and a photograph of the anomaly uploaded at the site. Therefore, gains in productivity and a decrease in the error probability can be achieved. The inspection data is stored in the BIM model, making it suitable for consultation when planning maintenance. Additionally, it was case study the interoperability between BIM modelling and visualizing software, regarding the preservation of information, especially in the standard format Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)
Paper ID: 9
Barbara Strug
Jagiellonian University, Poland
Grażyna Ślusarczyk
Jagiellonian University, Poland
Keywords: Urban design, graph representation, grammar systems
Graph-based generating systems in urban space design
In this paper a mechanism supporting the design process of urban spaces is presented. The proposed system of graph grammars allows to separate generated structures describing arrangements of city components from their shape geometry and overall appearance. A great number of unique city designs with similar layout structures can be easily obtained and then filled with previously modelled 3D components. The system of cooperating distributed grammars operates on one common attributed graph, while the communication between grammars is realized through a set of communication labels. The proposed approach is illustrated by the case study of generating a city quarter using the specified graph grammar system.
Paper ID: 11
Nicolas Veuve
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland
Seif Dalil Safei
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland
Ian F.C. Smith
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland
Keywords: Tensegrity, footbridge, computational control, active structures
Mid-span connection of a deployable tensegrity footbridge
This paper describes a near full-scale deployable tensegrity footbridge. Tensegrity structures are pre-stressed structures composed of tension elements (cables) surrounded by compression elements (struts) in equilibrium. Deployment of two bridge halves is assisted by the energy stored in spring elements. Five active cables control the deployment of each half. This paper presents a two-stage control methodology for determining control commands for mid-span connection of the two bridge halves. The control methodology determines active cable length changes based on computational control on a simplified analytical model and including measurement of the structural response to cable-length changes. Both halves are successfully connected at the end of deployment. Active control strategies provide effective solutions for completing deployment of multi-degree-of-freedom structures.
Paper ID: 15
Simon Daum
Chair of Computational Modeling and Simulation, Technische Universität München, Germany
André Borrmann
Chair of Computational Modeling and Simulation, Technische Universität München, Germany
Keywords: BIM, IFC, CityGML, Query Language, VPL
Simplifying the Analysis of Building Information Models Using tQL4BIM and vQL4BIM
This paper presents a new approach to analyse Building Information Models. Firstly, a domain- specific language in its textual notation is introduced. It is tailored to domain experts with little programming experience. Based on an uncomplicated pattern, the language offers a formal and general method of BIM—analysis. Additionally, its imperative nature and its sequential layout makes a stepwise execution and inspection of intermediate results possible. Thus, complex queries may consist of comprehensible and verifiable statements. As an alternative to textual definitions, we introduce a visual notation for BIM queries. Both the textual and the visual notation are based on the identical abstract syntax and offer the same range of functionalities.
Paper ID: 16
Wojciech Palacz
Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
Ewa Grabska
Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
Szymon Gajek
Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
Keywords: CAD, design constraints, graph data structures, many-sorted first-order logic
Conceptualization in Designing with the Use of Many-SortedFirst-Order Logic
This paper is a continuation and extension in developing the knowledge-based decision support design system HSSDR (Hierarchical Graph System Supporting Design and Reasoning) which communicates with the designer via drawings displayed on the monitor screen. Graph-based modeling of conceptualization in CAD process is considered. Design drawings generated on the monitor screen are automatically transformed into appropriate graph-based data structures. In this paper the enrichment of the graph data structure is proposed. This is done by hierarchical graphs with bonds which correspond to arguments of existing (engaged bonds) and potential relations (free bonds). This distinction of bonds is essential in defi nitions of operations on graphs that refl ect modifi cations of design drawings. This type of graphs provides an ontological commitment between drawings and its internal representations. Moreover, the fi rst-order logic of HSSDR is replaced by many-sorted fi rst order logic that makes it possible to defi ne different sorts in specifi cation of functions and predicates in semantics and design constraint verifi cation.
Paper ID: 22
Stefania C. Radopoulou
University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Ioannis Brilakis
University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Keywords: Road defects, automatic detection, road monitoring
Detection of Multiple Road Defects for Pavement Condition Assessment
Pavement condition assessment is a prerequisite for pavement maintenance. State of the art practices are mainly manual, with only 0.8% of inspections using expensive specialized vehicles that automate data collection. This expensive and time-intensive task could be crowdsourced by transforming every day road users into omnipresent pavement inspectors using pre-existing car sensors. The objective is to automate the detection of pavement defects. This paper presents an application of the Semantic Texton Forests (STF) algorithm for automatically detecting patches, potholes and three types of cracks in video frames captured by a common parking camera. The prototype has been implemented in C# and validated using real data collected from local roads in the city of Cambridge, United Kingdom. Preliminary results demonstrate the successful application of STF in the context of pavements with over 70% accuracy in all of the tests performed, and over 75% precision for most of the defects.
Paper ID: 23
Kristina Georgieva
Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany
Gordon Horn
Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany
Christian Koch
University ofNottingham, United Kingdom
Andreas Schumann
Ruhr—University Bochum, Germany
Markus Konig
Ruhr—University Bochum, Germany
Keywords: precipitation forecast, supervised machine learning, pattern recognition
Automated assessment of members in meteorological ensemble forecasts based on supervised machine learning
Meteorological forecasts of precipitation are uncertain. This uncertainty depends on model physics, boundary and initial conditions. To consider the unavoidable uncertainties of flood forecasts, resulting from uncertainties of precipitation forecasts, which form the input into hydrological models, ensemble prediction systems are applied. These systems consist of several members simulated with varying conditions. The wide range of model-based flood forecasts derived from the meteorological ensembles has to be restricted by a weighting of ensemble members according to their performance. In this paper, the performance of each ensemble member is evaluated by comparing the results of forecasts corresponding to this member with observed values in the past. With regard to the temporal resolution of forecasts (every 3 hours with a lead time of forecasts of 27 hours in an hourly time step), the evaluation of spatially distributed ensemble members is time-consuming and tedious if the evaluation is performed by one expert. Moreover, the evaluation is highly subjective, because the expert makes his decision based on his implicit knowledge. Therefore, approaches for automated evaluation of such forecasts are required. Here, we present a semi-automated approach for the assessment of precipitation forecast ensemble members based on supervised machine learning. The approach is tested on ensemble precipitation forecasts for the area of the Mulde river basin in Germany.
Paper ID: 26
Kateryna Sigalov
Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany
Markus König
Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany
Keywords: BIM-based scheduling, process patterns, similarity estimation.
Similarity estimation of BIM-based schedules
Construction scheduling is a very demanding and time intensive process. Building information modelling (BIM) is becoming increasingly important for planning and scheduling, as it provides significant support for this challenging assignment. Further improvements can be achieved by applying predefined process templates for automatically generated BIM-based schedules. It can help reduce the planning time and thus increase the productivity. However, a manual definition of proper and application-specific process templates is very challenging. The automatic detection of recurring similar configurations of construction processes, called process patterns, would greatly support this complex task. This paper presents an overall concept for pattern recognition in BIM-based construction schedules by applying graph-based methods. Special attention is paid to the estimation of similarity in construction schedules, describing the selected methods and similarity measure definitions in detail. Finally, implementation results are evaluated on a comprehensive case study.
Paper ID: 27
Christopher Kropp,
Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany
Christian Koch
The University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Markus König
Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany
Keywords: Progress monitoring, 4D BIM, computer vision, state recognition, framework
Integrating visual state recognition with 4D BIM for indoor progress monitoring
The need for a higher degree of automation in progress monitoring has spurred research in recent years. Leveraging existent 4D BIM models for progress monitoring appears to represent the appropriate means in order to achieve activity state recognition. However, BIM based progress monitoring approaches currently target only a small quantity of activities and are not applicable indoors. Nevertheless, there exists an abundance of vision based state recognition methods that are not currently being considered in progress monitoring. Within this paper, a generic framework that links vision based state recognition methods with BIM based progress monitoring is developed. The integration of the framework into BIM based progress monitoring as well as the implementation of state recognition workflows are elaborated. Case studies show the ability of these new state recognition methods within this framework as well as the assimilation of an existing image retrieval method as an additional state recognition method.
Paper ID: 28
Veronika Hartmann
Computing in Civil Engineering, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Germany
Tom Lahmer
Optimization and Stochastics, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Germany
Kay Smarsly
Computing in Civil Engineering, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Germany
Keywords: Construction scheduling, uncertainties, robustness, optimization
Assessment and optimization of the robustness of construction schedules
Construction schedules are known to be unreliable. Deadlines are passed, because a schedule’s input data, which is usually not exactly known in the planning phase, is considered deterministic when generating the schedule. This paper discusses the effects of uncertainties inherent in input data of construction schedules. It further discusses models that take into account these uncertainties and presents a method for optimizing the robustness of construction schedules by identifying the most robust combination of alternative processes. In this study, uncertainties are considered by describing the process durations with distribution functions instead of discrete values. The project makespan, based on stochastic process durations, is determined with a Monte Carlo simulation. To assess the robustness, a criterion is defined, which relates the makespan considering uncertainties to the makespan assuming deterministic process durations. With an adapted genetic optimization algorithm, the most robust combination of alternative processes is determined. A case study shows the effectiveness of the method.
Paper ID: 31
Georg Suter
Design Computing Group, Center for Geometry and Computational Design, TU Wien, Vienna, Austria
Keywords: Building information modeling, Space modeling, Collaborative design
Definition of views to generate, visualize, and evaluate multi-view space models of schematic building designs
Modeling of spaces is a relevant aspect of architectural and building services design. A particular challenge concerns the modeling of multiple, domain-specific space views. While existing building information modeling (BIM) systems provide basic space modeling capabilities, computational support for modeling multiple space views is limited. In previous work, a space modeling system has been developed by the author that generates multi-view space models from space data created in a BIM system. A multi-view space model consists of one or more space layouts. Each layout has a spatial relation network (SRN) which may be visualized to reveal a layout's spatial structure. Moreover, designers may evaluate the spatial performance of a layout based on SRN metrics. Evaluation examples include determining walking distances between spaces, or access of spaces to natural light. In this paper, a set of space views are defined that appear useful to generate, visualize, and evaluate multi-view space models of schematic building designs. Each view corresponds to an operation sequence that is processed to derive a view-specific layout from a given source layout. Views cover aspects of architectural, pedestrian circulation, natural lighting, natural ventilation, and functional organization domains. The application potential of these views is demonstrated with a housing design example.
Paper ID: 32
Alcinia Z. Sampaio
Dep. Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
Edgar Berdeja
Dep. Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
Keywords: BIM methodology; BIM software; MEP; Clash detection; Conflict analysis.
Conflict Analysis Using BIM Tools
The development of a building design requires the participation of several parties involved in different disciplines, where each discipline conducts its own project in a somewhat disconnected manner from the remaining, therefore requiring project compatibility. In this context, an efficient conflict analysis between disciplines is essential to guarantee a well-developed design. The Building Information Modelling (BIM) methodology and tools associated with it present themselves as an excellent asset to support the process of conflict analysis, as they make it possible to merge all disciplines in an integrated virtual environment. The high level of detail and visualization provided by a BIM model leads to better collaboration between those involved throughout the design, hence resulting in a significant reduction of potential errors during the construction phase. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the practical capabilities of the BIM concept in the conflict analysis between building services, namely, the water supply and drainage systems design, and the architectural and structural design. As such, it was case study the development of an architectural, structural and building service (Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing, MEP) BIM models and their subsequent conciliation and clash detection. In this work, commercial software such as Revit 2014, Tekla BIMsight and Navisworks Manage were used, the latter two providing features for automatic collision detection. This work contributes to demonstrate the advantages of BIM in the conciliation and coordination between different specialties, as well as the benefits of its application in conflict analysis in an engineering design.
Paper ID: 33
Min-Koo Kim
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea
JoonWoo Park
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea
Qian Wang
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea
Hoon Sohn
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea
Keywords: Laser scanning, Building Information Modeling (BIM), dimensional quality assessment, atypical precast concrete elements
Dimensional Quality Assessment of Atypical Precast Elements using Laser Scanning and BIM
Over the last few decades, precast concrete elements have become a popular component for construction projects. Since success of the precast concrete based construction comes from the dimensional conformability of individual precast concrete elements to their design specifications, checking the dimensional qualities of individual precast concrete element is very important. This paper presents a laser scanning and Building Information Modeling (BIM) based quality assessment technique that automatically measures the dimensional properties of atypical precast concrete elements. In this study, a new algorithm is developed to match the scanned data obtained from a laser scanner with the as-designed model of precast concrete elements. Validation experiments are conducted on actual atypical precast concrete elements to identify the effectiveness of the proposed technique. The test results show that the dimensional errors between the scanned points and the as-designed model have a 2.6 mm, which is satisfactory accuracy for successful dimensional quality assessment of precast concrete elements.
Paper ID: 35
Pieter Pauwels
Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium,
Walter Terkaj
Institute of Industrial Technologies and Automation (ITIA), Milano, Italy
Thomas Krijnen
Technical University of Eindhoven (TU/e), Eindhoven, Netherlands
Jakob Beetz
Technical University of Eindhoven (TU/e), Eindhoven, Netherlands
Keywords: Semantic Web, Industry Foundation Classes, Resource Descriptions Framework
Coping with lists in the ifcOWL ontology
Over the past few years, several suggestions have been made of how to convert an EXPRESS schema into an OWL ontology. The conversion from EXPRESS to OWL is of particular use to architectural design and construction industry, because one of the key data models in architectural design and construction industry, namely the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) is represented using the EXPRESS information modelling language. In each of these conversion options, the way in which lists are converted (e.g. lists of coordinates, lists of spaces in a floor) is key to the structure and eventual strength of the resulting ontology. In this article, we outline and discuss the main decisions that can be made in converting LIST concepts in EXPRESS to equivalent OWL expressions. This allows one to identify which conversion option is appropriate to support proper and efficient information reuse in the domain of architecture and construction.
Paper ID: 37
A. Beltrami
University of Bergamo, Dept. of Engineering and Applied Science, Dalmine (BG), Italy Plymouth University, Building Performance Analysis Group, Drake Circus, PL4 8AA, Plymouth, UK
R.V. Jones
Plymouth University, Building Performance Analysis Group, Drake Circus, PL4 8AA, Plymouth, UK
P. de Wilde
Plymouth University, Building Performance Analysis Group, Drake Circus, PL4 8AA, Plymouth, UK
M. Picco
University of Bergamo, Dept. of Engineering and Applied Science, Dalmine (BG), Italy
M. Marengo
University of Bergamo, Dept. of Engineering and Applied Science, Dalmine (BG), Italy University of Brighton, School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, Lewes Road, BN2 4GJ, Brighton, UK
Keywords: dynamic energy simulation, building and plant energy performance, decision tool.
Towards an integrated decision tool for evaluation of energy performance during building and plant design
This work presents the creation of a dynamic energy model able to simulate, with a reasonable workload, a very large number of integrated building-plant systems with different scales and resolutions, in order to have a design support for architects and designers, reducing their modeling effort and errors. The model includes the dynamic simulation of the building envelope, all the heating plant subsystems, and all the plant components relating to the production of domestic hot water, the latter with possible solar thermal integration. Starting from a detailed model created with the calculation engine Trnsys, the paper explores simplifications that can considerably reduce the number of necessary inputs for the simulations, thus minimizing the modeling, implementation and simulation runtime of the model, while still maintaining an acceptable degree of accuracy with respect to the computational results and real energy consumptions. The model is benchmarked by means of a case study comprising three different residential apartments with very high thermal performances, subjected to a complete monitoring of all energy consumption. The results show that the accuracy of the integrated model is within 16% of the real monitored consumptions, even for extreme cases such as the one presented.
Paper ID: 38
Rodrigo Leal
Intituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
Francisco Regateiro
Intituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
Maria Gomes
Intituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
Keywords: Blind Automation, Energy Efficiency, Building Performance Simulation
Dynamic Blind Control: A Simulation Approach for Energy Efficiency
With the increasing energy demand energy efficiency is becoming increasingly more important. Automated blind control is one of the ways to waste less energy in a building. With multiple studies finding that manual control is inefficient, further study on automated blind controls is needed. This paper proposes some control strategies for automated blinds and comparing the different energy consumptions.
Paper ID: 39
Wiet Mazairac
Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
Robbe Salenbien
Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Belgium
Bauke de Vries
Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
Keywords: multi-carrier energy networks, network topology optimization, energy conversion, linear programming
Towards an optimal topology for hybrid energy networks
Existing networks do not have the quantitative and qualitative capacity to facilitate the transition towards distributed renewable energy sources. Irregular production of energy over time at different locations will alter the current patters of energy flow, necessitating the implementation of short- and long-term changes in the energy distribution network. To determine the optimal topology of a future multi-carrier hybrid energy distribution network an optimization model is currently under development.
Paper ID: 40
Thomas Krijnen
Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
Jakob Beetz
Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
Sebastian Ochmann
Institute of Computer Science II, University of Bonn, Germany
Richard Vock
Institute of Computer Science II, University of Bonn, Germany
Raoul Wessel
Institute of Computer Science II, University of Bonn, Germany
Keywords: Point Clouds, Industry Foundation Classes, Building Information Modelling, HDF
Towards extending IFC with point cloud data
In this paper we suggest an extension to the Industry Foundation Classes model to integrate point cloud datasets. The proposal includes a schema extension to the core model allowing the storage of points either as Cartesian coordinates, points in parametric space of a surface associated with a building element or as discrete height fields projected as grids onto (building element) surfaces. To handle considerable amounts of data, we further suggest to employ the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) as an efficient serialization format as an additional alternative to clear text encoded ISO 10303 part 21 files. Based on prototypical implementations we show early results of population files and discuss potential benefits of dedicated compression algorithms.
Paper ID: 41
Philipp Geyer
Architectrual Engineering, KU Leuven, Belgium
Fabian Ritter
Computational Modelling and Simulation, TU München, Germany
Keywords: Automated network identification, spatial fuzzy logic, metamodelling or surrogate modelling.
Identifying Thermal Microgrids on the Basis of Spatialized Fuzzy Logic and Metamodelling
Microgrids have high potential in future energy supply and its efficiency. However, establishing microgrids within a building stock is a complex task as characteristic of buildings in terms of energy demand and supply systems need to match. For this purpose, the paper proposes an identification method for assistance in pre-planning that bases on a spatialized fuzzy logic in combination with metamodelling to represent key building characteristics. The method, which is intuitively applicable, identifies potential building groups for microgrids based on key factors window size, insulation and compactness as well as age of the heating system, emissions and spatial location. It is demonstrated by means of the data of a small Swiss building stock.
Paper ID: 44
Sjonnie Boonstra
Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
Hèrm Hofmeyer
Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
Keywords: 3D-topology optimisation, hierarchic structures, Heaviside function
Generation of a hierarchic structure via 3D-topology optimisation using black and white filtering
Commonly used building structures often show a hierarchic layout of structural elements. It can be questioned whether such a layout originates from practical considerations, e.g. related to its construction, or that it is (relatively) optimal from a structural point of view. This paper investigates this question by using topology optimisation in an attempt to generate a commonly used timber floor. The optimisation is conducted using 3D-volume elements so the topology can differentiate over the height, making a hierarchic layout at least possible. First results show indeed a hierarchic layout, however the floor surface is non-continuous, due to low density areas, reducing its practical applicability. Black and white filtering is proposed via a Heaviside function to avoid the low density areas. Although some implementation issues exist, this function results in a more continuous floor surface, suggesting that a hierarchic layout is optimal from a structural point of view.
Paper ID: 55
Rob Wolfs
Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
Theo Salet
Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
Keywords: CAD/CAM, 3D Concrete Printing, Optimization, Simulated Annealing
An Optimization Strategy for 3D Concrete Printing
The development of automation techniques shifts the building industry towards CAD/CAM oriented design. This requires the relations between design and construction to be considered in each step of the design process. However, the nature of these relations is still largely unknown for new techniques and the amount of involved parameters is great. One of these new, upcoming techniques is 3D printing. A research model has been developed, which allows 3D concrete printing to be studied in an efficient way. The model is set up in a parametric environment, combining a structural analysis with an optimization module based on the simulated annealing algorithm.